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The winter transfer window runs from 2 January until 1 February. Keep track of all the official comings and goings right here Who leads the scoring charts in the Bundesliga, with Robert Lewandowski seeking a fourth straight top scorer's crown?
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Ricky Oudbier. From until two, or later three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either completely or partially in promotion play-offs.
The season starts in early August  and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks mid-December through to the end of January.
Prior to the formation of the Bundesliga, German football was played at an amateur level in a large number of sub-regional leagues until, in , part-time semi- professionalism was introduced and only five regional Oberligen Premier Leagues remained.
Regional champions and runners-up played a series of playoff matches for the right to compete in a final game for the national championship.
The first recognised national championship team was VfB Leipzig , who beat DFC Prague 7—2 in a game played at Altona on 31 May Through the s, there were continued calls for the formation of a central professional league, especially as professional leagues in other countries began to draw Germany's best players away from the semi-professional domestic leagues.
At the international level, the German game began to falter as German teams often fared poorly against professional teams from other countries.
A key supporter of the central league concept was national team head coach Sepp Herberger who said, "If we want to remain competitive internationally, we have to raise our expectations at the national level.
Meanwhile, in East Germany, a separate league was established with the formation of the DS-Oberliga Deutscher Sportausschuss Oberliga in The league was renamed the Football Oberliga DFV in and was generally referred to simply as the DDR-Liga or DDR-Oberliga.
The league fielded 14 teams with two relegation spots. The defeat of the national team by Yugoslavia 0—1 in a World Cup quarter-final game in Chile was one impetus of many towards the formation of a national league.
At the annual DFB convention under new DFB president Hermann Gösmann elected that very day the Bundesliga was created in Dortmund at the Westfalenhallen on 28 July to begin play starting with the —64 season.
At the time, there were five Oberligen premier leagues in place representing West Germany's North, South, West, Southwest, and Berlin.
East Germany, behind the Iron Curtain, maintained its separate league structure. The first Bundesliga games were played on 24 August Early favourite 1.
FC Köln was the first Bundesliga champion with points over second place clubs Meidericher SV and Eintracht Frankfurt both Following German reunification , the East German leagues were merged into the West German system.
Dynamo Dresden and F. Hansa Rostock were seeded into the top-tier Bundesliga division, with other clubs being sorted into lower tiers. The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga.
Each club plays every other club once at home and once away. Originally, a victory was worth two points, with one point for a draw and none for a loss.
Since the —96 season, a victory has been worth three points, while a draw remains worth a single point, and zero points are given for a loss.
The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes German champion. Currently, the top four clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the UEFA Champions League.
The two teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2. Bundesliga, while the top two teams in the 2.
Bundesliga are promoted. The 16th-placed team third-last , and the third-placed team in the 2. Bundesliga play a two-leg play-off match.
The winner of this match plays the next season in the Bundesliga, and the loser in the 2. If two clubs are still tied after all of these tie-breakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement.
However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga. In terms of team selection, matchday squads must have no more than five non-EU representatives.
Nine substitutes are permitted to be selected, from which three can be used in the duration of the game. The number of German clubs which may participate in UEFA competitions is determined by UEFA coefficients , which take into account the results of a particular nation's clubs in UEFA competitions over the preceding five years.
That year it was the only European football league where clubs collectively made a profit. The Bundesliga has the lowest ticket prices and the highest average attendance among Europe's five major leagues.
By contrast, in the other major European leagues numerous high-profile teams have come under ownership of foreign billionaires and a significant number of clubs have high levels of debt.
In the cases of Bayer Leverkusen and Wolfsburg, the clubs were founded by major corporations respectively Bayer AG and Volkswagen as sports clubs for their employees, while Hoffenheim has long received its primary support from SAP co-founder Dietmar Hopp , who played in the club's youth system.
After the German Football Association and the Bundesliga required every club to run a youth academy with the aim of developing local talent for the club and the national team.
This in turn allows more money to be spent on the smaller number of players that are bought. In the s, the Bundesliga was regarded as competitive, as five teams have won the league title.
This contrasted with Spain's La Liga , dominated by the "Big Two" of Barcelona and Real Madrid, the English Premier League dominated by a "Big Four" Manchester United, Chelsea, Liverpool, and Arsenal , as well as France's Ligue 1 , won seven consecutive years by Lyon.
For a number of years, the clubs in the Bundesliga have been subject to regulations not unlike the UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations agreed upon in September At the end of each season, clubs in the Bundesliga must apply to the German Football Federation DFB for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval.
In addition, no individual is allowed to own more than 49 per cent of any Bundesliga club, the only exceptions being VfL Wolfsburg , Bayer Leverkusen and current 3.
Liga member FC Carl Zeiss Jena should they ever be promoted to the Bundesliga as they were each founded as factory teams. Despite the good economic governance, there have still been some instances of clubs getting into difficulties.
In subsequent years, the club went through extensive restructuring to return to financial health, largely with young home-grown players.
Based on its per-game average, the Bundesliga is the best-attended association football league in the world; out of all sports, its average of 45, fans per game during the —12 season was the second highest of any professional sports league worldwide, behind only the National Football League of the United States.
Out of Europe's five major football leagues Premier League , La Liga , Ligue 1 , and Serie A , the Bundesliga has the lowest ticket prices and the highest average attendance.
Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans by comparison, stadia in the English Premier League are all-seaters due to the Taylor Report.
Match tickets often double as free rail passes which encourages supporters to travel and celebrate in a relaxed atmosphere. According to Bundesliga chief executive Christian Seifert , tickets are inexpensive especially for standing room as "It is not in the clubs' culture so much [to raise prices].
They are very fan orientated". Football has got to be for everybody. The spectator figures for league for the last ten seasons:. The Bundesliga broadcast rights are sold along with the broadcast rights to the relegation playoffs, 2.
Bundesliga and DFL-Supercup. From to to —19, Bundesliga matches were broadcast on TV in Germany on Sky Deutschland and Eurosport.
Prior to the —20 season, Eurosport sublicensed its broadcast rights to sports streaming service DAZN , which will broadcast games previously allocated to Eurosport until the conclusion of the —21 season.
Starting with the —19 season, Sky began arranging simulcasts of high-profile Saturday games on free TV to promote its coverage of the league.
The April Revierderby was broadcast on Das Erste , and two additional games during the —20 season were broadcast on ZDF.
Radio coverage includes the national Konferenz whip-around coverage on the stations of ARD and full match coverage on local radio stations.
The Bundesliga is broadcast on TV in over countries. In October , 21st Century Fox , via the Fox Sports , Fox International Channels , and Sky plc divisions, acquired television and digital rights to the Bundesliga in 80 territories, including North America and Asia outside of India and Oceania for five years, and selected European territories for two years, beginning in the —16 season.
CEO James Murdoch explained that the deal was designed to "leverage our unrivaled global portfolio of sports channels to bolster the Bundesliga brand in every corner of the globe.
As a result of this partnership, Fox Sports replaced GOL TV as United States rightsholder beginning in the —16 season.
In Canada, broadcast rights were sub-licensed to Sportsnet and Sportsnet World. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, the Bundesliga is broadcast live on BT Sport.
In , digital TV operator StarTimes acquired exclusive television rights for Sub-Saharan Africa for five years starting from to season.
In total, 43 clubs have won the German championship , including titles won before the Bundesliga's inception and those in the East German Oberliga.
The record champions are Bayern Munich with 30 titles,  ahead of BFC Dynamo Berlin with 10 all in East Germany and 1. FC Nürnberg with 9. In , the honour of "Verdiente Meistervereine" roughly "distinguished champion clubs" was introduced, following a custom first practised in Italy  to recognize sides that have won multiple championships or other honours by the display of gold stars on their team badges and jerseys.
Each country's usage is unique and in Germany the practice is to award one star for three titles, two stars for five titles, three stars for 10 titles, and four stars for 20 titles.
The former East German side BFC Dynamo laid claim to the three stars of a time champion. They petitioned the league to have their DDR-Oberliga titles recognized, but received no reply.
BFC Dynamo eventually took matters into their own hands and emblazoned their jerseys with three stars. This caused some debate given what may be the tainted nature of their championships under the patronage of East Germany's secret police, the Stasi.
The issue also affects other former East German and pre-Bundesliga champions. In November , the DFB allowed all former champions to display a single star inscribed with the number of titles, including all German men's titles since , women's titles since and East German titles.
The DFB format only applies to teams playing below the Bundesliga below the top two divisions , since the DFL conventions apply in the Bundesliga.
Greuther Fürth unofficially display three silver stars for pre-war titles in spite of being in the Bundesliga second division. These stars are a permanent part of their crest.
However, Fürth has to leave the stars out on their jersey. Since June , the following clubs have been officially allowed to wear stars while playing in the Bundesliga.
The number in parentheses is for Bundesliga titles won. In addition, a system of one star designation was adopted for use.
This system is intended to take into account not only Bundesliga titles but also other now defunct national championships. As of July , the following clubs are allowed to wear one star while playing outside the Bundesliga.
The number in parentheses is for total league championships won over the course of German football history, and would be displayed within the star.
Some teams listed here had different names while winning their respective championships, these names are also noted in parentheses.
For the first time in , the Bundesliga was given its own logo to distinguish itself. Six years later, the logo was revamped into a portrait orientation, which was used until A new logo was announced for the —11 season in order to modernise the brand logo for all media platforms.
In December , it was announced that a new logo would be used for the —18 season, modified slightly for digitisation requirements, featuring a matte look.
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